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A Pre-Trial Study to Identify Species of Origin in Halloumi Cheese Utilising Chemometrics with Near-Infrared and Hyperspectral Imaging Technologies

Type: 
Research Paper

Abstract:

first_pagesettingsOrder Article Reprints Open AccessArticle A Pre-Trial Study to Identify Species of Origin in Halloumi Cheese Utilising Chemometrics with Near-Infrared and Hyperspectral Imaging Technologies by Maria Tarapoulouzi 1,*ORCID,Natasha Logan 2ORCID,Mike Hardy 2,Holly Montgomery 2,Simon A. Haughey 2,*ORCID,Christopher T. Elliott 2,3ORCID andCharis R. Theocharis 1ORCID 1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, CY-1678 Nicosia, Cyprus 2 National Measurement Laboratory, Centre of Excellence in Agriculture and Food Integrity, Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, 19 Chlorine Gardens, Belfast BT9 5DL, UK 3 School of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, 99 Mhu 18, Pahonyothin Road, Khong Luang 12120, Thailand * Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed. Analytica 2024, 5(1), 17-27; https://doi.org/10.3390/analytica5010002 Submission received: 12 October 2023 / Revised: 6 November 2023 / Accepted: 18 December 2023 / Published: 9 January 2024 (This article belongs to the Collection Analytical and Applied Chemistry: the challenges and opportunities for growth in the 21st century) Downloadkeyboard_arrow_down Browse Figures Versions Notes Abstract Halloumi cheese has recently gained a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) indicator, which is related to the place (Cyprus) in which halloumi cheese is made. The PDO label is linked with several requirements, e.g., milk species, quantities, etc.; thus, it is important to study this product regarding authenticity. The utility of using two spectroscopic techniques, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) (400–1000 nm) and conventional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) (800–2500 nm) were assessed for the discrimination of 17 Cypriot halloumi cheese types, which could be categorized as of cow or goat–sheep origin. The aim of this study was to obtain spectral information for halloumi cheese using other promising infrared and imaging spectroscopic techniques as a comparison to a previously acquired mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy dataset. NIR and HSI are both fast and easy techniques in application, both of which provide significant information in food analysis. Chemometric analysis was crucial for interpreting the spectroscopic data by applying the unsupervised methods: principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The HSI model was found to be based intuitively on the appearance of cheese samples after freeze-drying (e.g., color; yellow/white, and texture; oily/dry), while the NIR grouping of samples was determined to be based on composition, mainly fat, protein and lactose content of the cheese samples. The HSI model returned distinct clusters of the two halloumi cheese types, cow and goat–sheep origin, with one outlier (16/17 accuracy; 94%), while the NIR model proved less accurate (13/17; 76%).

Published in: 
MDPI
Category: 
Food & Beverages
Date of Publication: 
January 9, 2024
Authors: 
Maria Tarapoulouzi / Natasha Logan / Mike Hardy / Holly Montgomery / Simon A. Haughey / Christopher T. Elliott / Charis R. Theocharis
University: 
University of Cyprus / Queen’s University Belfast / Thammasat University
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